In this article we fully explain to you about learning, studying, functions, principles, administration jobs, pillars which help in enforcing administration towards people’s needs and most importantly what is public administration about as both study, science, art and academic discipline. Read public administration(Woodrow Wilson) and Principles of Bureaucracy. It was defined by Woodrow Wilson been one that deals with the implementation of public policies by the pubic servants.
Administration contributes to government sectors administration, and policy making. Hence why it has a lot of generic functions, not forgetting society, democracy developer and modern state. Hence why its considered one of the most important form of administration today, in developing and developed countries.
Scope of public administration
Meaning, nature and scope of administration: What is the scope of new public management and administration? Meaning of management or administration is referenced from a Latin word ‘ministiare’, meaning to serve people and serve ‘Public, meaning of the term public and people.
Therefore administration is an important discipline that involves process to execute the policy of government. management or people’s administration comprises of human resource and management, process at work to ensure employees work collectively. The Public interchangeably helps to form an administrative process. Articles outline, an essential element of public management operates in private, public institutions, social and political settings.
Scope of Public Administration consists of important views and perspectives introduced by man named L.D. White, the traditional perspective ofmanagement or administration by Gullick and scientific management by Frederick Taylor in 1980. Important types of administration models, include classical theory of administration, post-modern public administration, Bureaucracy, and neo-classical management. Public management and administration scope, consist of three main important perspectives namely; POSDCORB perspective, Broad perspective and Prevailing view.
POSDCORB perspective: According to Luther Gullick the narrow perspective called POSDCORB view consists of important elements needed in enhancing the affairs of government organizations. Narrow perspective functions include;
- Reporting and
POSDCORB functions improve work executives and managers by separating duties from those of non-managerial and personnel controls. Coordinates activities within the organization to ensure everything is properly done with the highest esteem of professionalism through managerial techniques.
Broad perspective: Woodrow Wilson explained three major branches of the government. Hence the scope of management and administration today acts as a comparative structure part of politics, but advised to practice politics dichotomy.
Administrative theory: This theory deals with activities of an organizations, theory behavior, personal administration, applied administration, political functions and responsibilities. Finance control, planning, strategic formulation, educational procedures, social welfare, local administration and foreign policy.
Dealing with administration as Subject
Public administration importance duties and role, includes expanding of welfare society, improving role of the government and acts as a machinery incase of an emergence.
Focus of administration
Public administration focuses on Planning of organizational systems, Organizing responsibilities, and Directing of human resource to attain efficiency with less cost. Both management and administration is beyond other disciplines. it overlaps studies, including Business administration, sociology, political science, economics, and psychology. Public management or administrative has been a study of practice for making law, policy formulation with interest to people.
Scope of public administration as a discipline
By the scope of Public Administration as an academic discipline it deals with people affairs and enhances students and researchers to understand critical role that administrators play in institutions. Management and administration as an academic discipline has introduced new theories broad of great importance to social sciences. Management Administration both embraces and massively enhances all the activities of the government.
Functions of public administration
Below are 5 generic processes of making administration responsible policy making, promoting of common values among citizens, controlling government operations, budgetary planning and resource provision.
1. Policy Making
The most important among generic functions of administration is the process of formulating government policies. Its of great significance and importance of public administration, especially in politics and democracy due to process required in making government policies. A good policy must uphold rule of law, promote fairness, development and security to people.
2. Controlling government operations
Public administration involves ensuring of proper implementation especially for government policies and programs. Hence in order to enhance government capabilities, one of the general functions in administration, involves controlling of government operations. Through managerial functions administrators have proper planning, resource organizing, measures to help directing, and coordinating get properly implemented to attain efficiency and effectiveness.
3. Budgetary Planning & Control
Government budgets require checks and balances, public administrators play an important function in process for Budgetary planning and control. Through the legislative, judiciary or executive wings of government. Deals with accounting information that gets processed in democratic government to know how much was spent in prior year and how that was done to performance of different ministries and public institutions.
4. Resource provision
Among general functions of public administration, one that can not be ignored is the provision of resources and utilization. Public administrators help in the act of providing food, incase of hunger or famine to people in need, etc. They are in charge of preparations, forecasting and planning towards provision beforehand to ensure necessities, get properly utilized.
5. Determination of correct procedures
Administration is responsible for Determination of proper process, ensures positive exemplary behavior that does not promote nepotism, favoritism, violation of human rights and discrimination. Determination of correct procedure, occurs during goal attainment and delivery of services to reduce corruptive practices and bring behavior that helps to motivate good behavior help society and government achieve its goals.
Principles of administration
Exploring the topic of responsibility and its significance in the field of civil service reveals a strong connection between all of the pillars of civil administration.
Here’s top 12 principles of public administration
Transparency is one principle that aims at keeping public servants in check as far as their operations is concerned. We can only achieve transparency when there is free flow of information that concerns the interests of the people to be served. Such information should also be made easily accessible.
Public servants deal with people from diverse backgrounds and all deserve their service. The aspect of equity places paramount importance to striking a balance in giving opportunities to all men and women regardless of who they are.
When researching the pillars of civil administration, economy comes in under the banner ‘efficiency and effectiveness.’ This is the most prominent principle of public relations administration. Human beings’ primary instincts care about survival and their relationship with public administrators is focused on the distribution and management of resources. The main goal is to deliver the best public service at very low costs. However, the idea is not only to put the existing resources to use, but also ad value or make more out of them for the benefit of the people.
Due to administration’s concern with efficiency, effectiveness and improvement, focus has been placed on question of formal organization in service delivery. This birthed the principle of subsidiarity, where departments, ministries and agencies are organized on the basis of common or closely related purposes.
Pluralism places emphasis on the dispersement of power among different economic and ideological groups. Pluralism accepts diversity as a beneficial element to society and that autonomy should be enjoyed by disparate functional or cultural groups within a society, including religious groups, trade unions, professional organizations, and ethnic minorities. With regards to administration, pluralism puts servants in a position where they ought to serve these diverse groups of people with impartiality.
As societies became more organised and the control of resources went into the hands of elected government structures, the public became dependent on these governmemts for services and quality is of importance. Providing public good in a cost effective manner is the main goal of public service. As such public administrators are held highly accountable by the constituents they serve. Accountability is a a critical principle that has the power to make or break governments. It requires ethical decision making, equal representation, legitimacy, efficiency, effectiveness, responsibility.
Public administration accepts that all people are equal irrespective of their backgrounds, ethnicity, gender and/or affiliations. As such, participation of all men and women in matters of public interest is progressive.
8. Access to services
For equity to be achieved, every citizen ought to be afforded equal access to public services such as health care, education among others. This principle role works hand in glove with that of transparency which then shows how resources are being distributed through free access to information.
The fundamental building block around the principle of representation is the idea of “the people’s will!” It becomes a question of, “Who will represent the will of the people?” Are they those who are elected by the people themselves? Representation is not the cornerstone of public administration but it is the cornerstone of the entire government system. So the people chose who is going to be responsible and accountable for the country and them. All democratic power that governments yields comes from the people. So without people, the government has no power.
For legitimacy to be carried out, public administrators should provide a conducive environment for adequate public involvement. “There must also be opportunities for empirical research and decision making in order to accomplish legitimacy in the state.” Public approval of a state’s power is the determining factor, whether or not it is legitimate.
According to Dr. Beaumaster, “The person who has the authority and power is legitimate . Legitimacy Power is derived from authority; authority is derived from legitimacy; legitimacy is a moral or normative standing. So whenever that person makes an unethical decision, this will reflect in his power and he may lose it.”
When looking ag the pillar in the form of Responsibility in the realm of Public Administration, you will come across a myriad of scholarly emphasis regarding the importance and reasons for responsible civil servants. Public administrators are held accountable by the public and they cannot act on their own accord because they are held responsible to the officials who have been elected by the public.
Elected government officials determine the course of action of public servants and this fact is highly relevant to the dichotomy of politics and public administration. In order for public servants to be responsible, they must adhere to certain values and principles which make them efficient, legitimate, and representative of social equity. “The highest duty of public administrators is to embrace a broad set of obligations and responsibilities that promote the public interest, demonstrate character, advance justice, and seek the greatest good.”
Integrity as a principle in public administration has more to do with one’s ethical conduct more than anything else. Public authorities must behave appropriately in their dealings with private citizens, businesses and other public authorities. Office holders, elected representatives and public servants must behave professionally and ethically.
Types of public administration
According to major scholars, there are three main different types of public administration and approaches to field of public administration and management. Approaches help us to understand importance and functions of public administration. Key types of public administration include; Classical Public Administration, New Public Management, and lastly the Postmodern Public Administration.
Main Theories of public administration include;
1. Classical Public Administration Theory
Classical theory of public administration, otherwise better known as the structural theory of public administration, centers on major variables.. It does not include other theories of administration but promotes the managing of government institutions through bureaucracy. The authors of this, namely Henri Fayol and prominent social scientist Luther Gulick, explained bureaucratic features, major importance’s and elements of classical theory, include; Unity, Efficiency, Atomism, Specialization and Command.
2. New Public Management Theory
New public management is an ideological perspective that aims to improve organizational performance. New public management reforms place emphasis on the need to make public Organizations business like. NPM emphasizes that, public organizations have become competing entities with the private sector, hence there is need for adoption of business model.
New public management introduces important key elements to improve efficiency, by shifting from the traditional model of administration. Importance of new public management, elements and characteristics, include; cutting the red tape, make people based economy, customer first business approach, and evaluation of competition on the market.
3. Modern Theory of Public Administration
The modern theories of administration today, places great emphasis on the more important aspect of behavioral process and quantitative analysis through theories borrowed from the schools of thought. Theories of public administration can not function alone without the scope of modern management theory which has changed the way public administrators perform duties, responsibilities and lookout their jobs.
Advancements made by the modern theory of public administration includes the promotion of decentralization, cutting the red tape, focusing on efficiency, and culture of putting customer first. In new public management theory modern theory of public administration, enables managers and managerial systems to evolve to more effective ones from the traditional models. The modern approach of administration has been known to be a theory that its main aim is to produce results through systems output.
4. Post Modern Public Administration Theory
Post modern administration theory was founded by Charles Fox and Hugh Miller in the year 1995. Post modern administration theory, proposes discourse to improve model of administration, enhance policy-making procedures and structures. Post modern theory of administration has created another discipline, within its scope to manage complexity.
Major efforts of this theory introduces way to dive into empirical research, policy analysis and administrative discourse. Fox and Miller’s proposition through post-modern theory of public administration, methodologically broadens the sphere of public administration principle, and generated set of major empirical discoveries in administration.
Importance of administration
Importance of administration is due to is core functions in managerial administration been of appropriate importance, such as human resources, human development, which helps in advocating for people’s rights, safety, security, and enhancing development through public private sector partnerships.
10 Roles of public administration
- 1. Implementing policies
- 2. Protecting People
- 3. Cost Effective
- 4. Equal Distribution Of Resources
- 5. Government Budgeting
- 6. Helps to Measure Development
- 7. Leadership And Management
- 8. Resource provision
- 9. Determination of correct procedures
- 10. Politics Dichotomy
Importance of public administration in society
Its an important instrument as noted for making good policies and provision of services. Any society governed by sate law needs public administration for making good policies, efficiency in procedures and programs on behalf of government. Public administration serves local people interest, its importance in society with no profit making motive, facilitate equal resources even to poor people
Duties of public management
New public management is an ideological perspective that aims to improve organizational performance. New public management reforms place emphasis on the need to make public Organizations business like. Public organizations have become competing entities with the private sector, hence there is need for managerial.
NPM play a very significant role in the delivery of goods and services. Gave rise to most organizations putting clear distinction between management and Administration. Here’s benefits and Importance of new public management in today’s world.
Public Administration degree
How many subjects are there in management or public administration degree? There’s 30 courses in public management and administration if you intend to pursue a bachelors degree which takes between 4 – 5 years before graduating. Diploma only takes 2 years before completion, slightly less than degree and syllabus comprises of 20 courses. Finally, certificate in management with administration only consist of 10 courses, takes between 6 months to 1 year to complete.
Public Administration degree requirements
A bachelor of public administration, or BPA, takes about four to three years before completion and requires anyone with an high school certificate or prior diploma in the related filed to be accepted at any University. Relations also has administration courses part of the syllabus hence it comprises of about 40 that provides training and education in public policy and public management.
Public Administration degree jobs
Public administration job examples
Administration job examples include: social and political activist. For the private sector they work as business administrator. Government adviser, human resource specialist, project coordinator, executive assistant, foreign correspondent, defense administrator, doctors, lecturers and policy makers, including public relations manager.
Reference books for public administration and articles
- 30 Importance’s administration
- Business math in accounting
- 14 Principles Of Management
- Business Administration vs Public Administration (Similarities and Differences)
- Human Resources Planning Process
- Pillars of modern administration
- Public management & Bureaucracy(Differences)
- Importance Of Communication In An Organization
- Management As A Science, Art & Profession
- Role of Human Resource Management
- Functions of Human Resource Management
- Strategic Management And Why Its Important?
- New Public Management