According to major scholars, there are three main different types of public administration and approaches to field of public administration and management. Approaches help us to understand importance and functions of public administration. Key types of public administration include; Classical Public Administration, New Public Management, and lastly the Postmodern Public Administration.
These theories offer different perspectives for how administrators and managers practice public administration, including its relevance as an academic study. Public administration plays major role through its complex functions, mainly to improve economic growth, social development promotion, infrastructure establishment, human development, policy formulation and protecting people’s interest through programs and outsourcing of through partnerships to improve efficiency. Below are modern and classical theory of public administration which define types of public administration.
Classical Public Administration Theory
Classical theory of public administration, otherwise better known as the structural theory of public administration, centers on major variables.. It does not include other theories of administration but promotes the managing of government institutions through bureaucracy. The authors of this, namely Henri Fayol and prominent social scientist Luther Gulick, explained bureaucratic features, major importance’s and elements of classical theory, include; Unity, Efficiency, Atomism, Specialization and Command.
New Public Management Theory
New public management is an ideological perspective that aims to improve organizational performance. New public management reforms place emphasis on the need to make public Organizations business like. NPM emphasizes that, public organizations have become competing entities with the private sector, hence there is need for adoption of business model.
New public management introduces important key elements to improve efficiency, by shifting from the traditional model of administration. Importance of new public management, elements and characteristics, include; cutting the red tape, make people based economy, customer first business approach, and evaluation of competition on the market.
Post Modern Public Administration Theory
Post modern public administration theory was founded by Charles Fox and Hugh Miller in the year 1995. Post modern public administration theory, proposes discourse to improve model of public administration, enhance policy-making procedures and structures. Post modern theory of public administration has created another discipline, within its scope to manage complexity. Major efforts of this theory introduces way to dive into empirical research, policy analysis and administrative discourse. Fox and Miller’s proposition through post-modern theory of public administration, methodologically broadens the sphere of public administration principle, and generated set of major empirical discoveries in public administration.