The role that Public Administration plays cannot be overemphasized, it is aimed at improving economic growth, promoting social development, human development, policy formulation, protecting people’s interests through various programs as well as outsourcing partnerships in a bid to enhance efficiency in this article for the types of public administration in Tanzania.
The four areas for types of public administration in Tanzania examined include public administration leadership, organizational and institutional management, human resources management, and quality service delivery management.
Public Administration has been in existence since time immemorial and besides the previous-mentioned roles which it plays, it assists in resolving local problems in governments, regulations of various issues, and helps by informing the powers that be, to prepare for the future. The bureaucracy theory was developed by Max Weber, a German sociologist, towards the end of the 19th century. The bureaucracy theory emphasizes the bureaucratic elements of Public Administration.
Weber defines bureaucracy as a hierarchical organizational structure aimed at managing various areas of the lives of the indigenous people. Ultimately speaking, Weber and Woodrow Wilson connects bureaucracy with public administration and defines both concepts as power in the scope of public administration. Weber explained that the main purpose of power in the state is to establish dominance, which can be achieved through administration. Under such conditions, domination can be legally established.
Types of public administration in the world
According to most scholars, there are four different types of Public Administration these are Classical Public Administration, New Public Management, Modern, and Post-modern Public Administration.
Classical Public Administration Theory
This type of Public Administration is an amalgamation of multiple theories that were designed to expound on the administration and management of sovereign states and their respective regions. The classical theory came about as a tool to ascertain and analyze how state control impacts the effectiveness of labor. It was launched in the 19th century, the period in which the rights and status of employees were the most common and topical issues. Types of public administration in Tanzania includes Classical Public Administration theory is categorized into two main branches; bureaucracy and the theory of scientific management.
The other branch, the scientific management theory was developed by an American, Frederick Taylor in his native United States early on in the 20th Century. Taylor perceived Public Administration as an emphasis on work and employment and his main interests were productivity increment as well as working process improvement.
Productivity, according to Taylor, comprises particular sustainable aspects and functions for the sole purpose of attaining specific objectives. It can as well be perceived as a process by which people aim to execute innovations in the existing system in a bid to ensure it balances with the current level of scientific and technological development.
Classical Public Administration theory is more profoundly associated with Woodrow Wilson whom many consider being the father of Public Administration theory because of the many ideas he put forth in his book titled “The Study of Administration”.
Wilson was for the idea that all state institutions ought to be divided into categories; administration and politics the major purpose of public administration is to ensure that there is effective execution of federal law and implementation of state regulations hence, the significance of the division between administration and politics as the execution of the latter is largely dependent on the business system and management methods.
New Public Management Theory
This is an ideological perspective whose aim is to enhance organizational performance. It emphasizes making public organizations operate like business entities by adopting business models if they are to compete with private organizations. People-based economy, client-first business approach, and doing away with the red tape are some of the elements and characteristics that New Public Management Theory encourages to ensure public organizations compete effectively with private organizations.
Modern Theory of Public Administration
This theory emphasizes many of the aspects of the behavioral process and quantitative analysis via other theories. It is almost impossible for public administration theories to function on their own without the assistance of modern management theory scope which has unequivocally changed the narrative regarding how public administrators execute their tasks as well as how they hunt for their jobs.
Since its inception, the Modern Theory of Public Administration has made numerous strides which include decentralization promotion, focusing on efficiency, cutting the red tape, as well as promoting the approach of considering the customer first. This theory is perceived to be the one whose aim is to ensure that results are produced through systems output.
Post-Modern Public Administration Theory
Charles Fox and Hugh Miller founded and developed in 1995 to improve public administration and enhance procedures regarding policy-making. The theory emphasizes postmodernist characteristics which include among others management, leadership, and efficiency.
The central theme in Post-Modern Public Administration Theory is the acceptance of social science as a fundamental principle of public administration exploration through the logic of objective. The theory is closely related to imagination and creativity.
Ultimately, Post-Modern Public Administration Theory proves that it is not possible that every level of public administration hierarchy can be objective or impartial as all civil servants (who are at the center of public administration) are equal members of the larger community. Public administrators in this theory are urged to be more democratic, easily adaptable, and proactive when it comes to responding to social and economic changes, as well as politics.
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