Types Of Demand And Supply

The ability of companies and consumers to purchase goods is crucial to the economy. By lowering inflation and interest rates, consumer demand drives production. This article explains types of demand and supply and how economic demand works, the seven types and factors that affect it, and the relationship between supply-demand.

What is the definition for demand in economics?

Economic demand refers to the willingness of consumers to buy goods and services at a given price. Demand is not the only side. Companies that can accurately satisfy demand with their products need to work with types of demand and supply and services will see a rise in brand awareness and profits.

The relationship between supply and demand

If demand is the number of goods and services consumers are willing to buy at a certain price, then supply is the quantity of products producers are willing to offer. 

The supply and demand for goods and services determine the price. The price will rise if there is a shortage and a high demand. The price will drop if there is a high supply and a low demand. The equilibrium price is where the amount consumers buy equals the quantity that producers produce.

Types of Demand

To be able to predict the amount of product your business will need, it is important to understand how different types of demand works. The types of demand and supply characteristics give a snapshot of the industry’s health and offer suggestions for new services. Here are seven types of economic demand:

1. Joint demand

The demand for products and services that are complementary is called joint demand. These products can be accessories or items that people often buy together. You could think of peanut butter and jelly, or cereal and milk. Although they are closely related, the demand for one does not necessarily depend on the demand of the other.

2. Composite demand

When multiple uses are made of a single product, it is called composite demand. Corn can be used in its entirety as a food, animal feed, or ethanol. A shortage of any one of these products can result in a rise in demand. This can cause a rise in the price.

3. Short-run and long-run demand

Short-run demand is the way people react to price changes, even if elements are not changed. If the demand for a product drops dramatically and the manufacturer has high overhead expenses, they will have to absorb the lost profits. Companies have the ability to adapt to changing circumstances through types of demand and supply over time or long-term by increasing or decreasing the price of labor and supplies.

4. Price demand

The price demand refers to how much a consumer will spend on a product for a given price. This information is used by businesses to decide at what price point a product should be introduced to the market. The value perception of a product is what will drive consumers to purchase it. Price elasticity refers to the way that demand will change in response to price fluctuations.

5. Income demand

Quantity demand rises as consumers earn more. People will spend more if they have more income. With an increase in income, tastes and expectations change. This can lead to a reduction or increase in the size of a market and a rise in the size of another. While consumers will buy products and services because they are affordable, they may also choose lower-quality options. As income rises, so will the demand for lower-quality products.

6. Competitive demand

When customers have a choice of other products or services, they are in competitive demand. A business can look at fluctuations in the prices of their competitors to decide how they will sell their products. This is an example of how this works between store-brand medicine and name-brand

medicine. The store brand will experience a rise in sales if a consumer chooses a name-brand brand, but it is not in stock or the price has increased significantly.

7. Demand from direct and derived sources

Direct demand refers to the demand for a final product. This can be seen in food, clothing and cell phone usage. It’s also known as autonomous demand.

The demand for a product that is derived from other people’s use is called derived demand. The demand for pencils, for example, will lead to the demand of graphite, paint, and eraser materials. This example shows that the demand for wood depends on its use.

Because of its relationship to other products, derived demand can be similar to joint demand. Because it depends on the final product for generating a need, it is distinct from joint demand. There is no demand for intermediate products if there isn’t a need.

Factors that affect demand

Businesses and consumers have a direct impact on demand. Through marketing, businesses try to increase demand. Through their preferences, income levels, and resistance to price rises, consumers drive demand.


If they believe that the value of something will rise in the future, people will be more willing to buy it. Good examples are property, stocks and gold.


Demand will be determined by the income of consumers. Higher-income will lead to higher demand. Consumers who make more money won’t necessarily buy more of the same product. A consumer who is able to afford a high-end television will not continue buying it just because they can. This is known as the marginal utility principle. It means that a product loses its utility at a given price or quantity.


The relationship between price and demand is inverted. This means that if prices rise, so does the demand. It is also the opposite. When consumers are tempted to buy an item due to price expectations, they will do so because they expect the price to rise soon.

This increases the product’s demand. Based on the types of demand and supply will hold off if they anticipate the price to fall, such as in the case with a sale at a department store. These tactics are used by businesses to increase demand for their product or service.


Substitute products refer to products that are closely related. When one product is more expensive, consumers will switch to a substitute.

Complementary Products

The price of accessories for main products can affect the demand for these products. The demand for accessories decreases if the main product is more expensive.

Preferences of the consumer

People buy things based on how they feel about the brand or their lifestyle. If someone is concerned about the environment, they will avoid products that they consider harmful.

Size of the market

The overall demand for a product increases when there are more buyers in the market. If more people are able to afford yachts, then the demand and market size for yachts will grow. The market and demand will decrease if there are fewer people who can afford yachts.

Types of Supply

The short-term supply refers to the fact that a buyer’s ability to purchase goods is limited by the availability of supplies. The products that are available to buyers cannot be purchased by buyers.

The factor of time availability when the demand changes is called long-term supply. This means

that the availability of time allows the supplier to adjust to sudden shifts in demand.

The consequential supply is explained by joint supply. Lamb production has an impact on meat and wool supply. If farmers stop farming lambs, the supply of meat and wool will also decrease. The opposite will happen if there is an increase in wool supply.

Market supply is the willingness and ability of suppliers to supply a product on a daily basis. Example: Wheat suppliers A, B and C might be willing to supply 5 kilos of wheat at $1 per kilogram for a total 11 kilos. The suppliers could increase their supply to 10, 8 and 15 kilos if prices rise to $2.50. The market supply totals 33 kilos.

Factors affecting supply

Numerous factors and circumstances can affect the seller’s ability or unwillingness to produce and/or sell a good. These are some of the most common factors:

Good’s price

This is the basic supply relationship between the price and quantity of a good. The Law of Supply states that an increase of price will result in an increase of quantity.

Prices of related goods

To aid in supply analysis, related goods are goods that can be used to produce the primary product. Spam, for example, is made from pork shoulder and ham. Both come from pigs. Spam would also be considered related to pigs. In this instance, the relationship would either be negative or inverted. The supply curve would shift left if the price of Spam goes up.

This is because the cost to produce Spam would have increased. Another related good could also be one that can be made with existing production factors. Let’s say a company produces leather belts. The firm’s managers discover that leather pouches are more profitable than leather belts. Based on this information, the firm may reduce the production of belts or begin producing cell phone pouches. Supply will also be affected by a change in price for a joint product.

Leather and beef products are examples of joint products. A company that has a beef processing plant and a tanning operation would see an increase in steak prices. This would lead to more cattle being processed, which would result in a greater supply of leather.

Conditions of production

This is the most important factor. The supply will increase if there is technological progress in the production of one product. Production conditions may also be affected by other variables. Weather is a key factor in agricultural goods. It can have an impact on the production outputs. Scale can also have an impact on production conditions.

Future market conditions

Sellers’ concerns can directly impact supply. A seller who believes that demand will rise in the near future for his product may increase production immediately to prepare for future price increases. This would cause a shift in the supply curve.

Prices of inputs

These include labor, land, energy, and raw materials. As sellers become less willing to or able sell goods at any price, the price of inputs will increase. A seller might reduce the supply of his product if electricity prices rise. Fixed inputs may affect the price of inputs. The scale of production also affects how much fixed costs are included in the final price.

Number of suppliers

The horizontal summation of all the individual supply curves is called the market supply curve. The market supply curve will shift as more companies enter the industry, which will result in lower prices.

Regulations and policies of the government

The government can have a significant impact on supply. Government intervention may take many forms, including types of demand and supply for environmental and human health regulations, hour- and wage laws and taxes, as well as electrical and natural gas rates, zoning, land use and other regulations.


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