We have looked at and exhausted the aspects of policy, from the process of its formulation. We even undressed the matter from the top determinant of human lives, right down to the last member of the household who is generally affected by policy from birth. Now, we need to learn–What Are The 4 Types Of Policy?
However, questions still find themselves on my desk about the types of policies there are! Well, this particular one we are going to try and answer in this article. There are more than seven types of policy but to answer the topical question I choose to narrow it down to four major types. Many variations of policy are modeled on these 4.
Four 4 Types Of Policy?
What Are The 4 Types Of Policy? Four types of policies include Public Policy, Organizational Policy, Functional Policy, and Specific Policy. Policy refers to a course of action proposed by an organization or individual.
Public Policy generally determines the lines along which human beings in a particular country can operate. Policy impacts everything from the legality of activities, to voting, and even which side of the road you can drive your vehicle.
It is designed by authorities of the respective country through processes based on the type of government that rules. Public policy is arguably the umbrella of all other policies. This type of policy also determines policies that are formulated in organizations that operate in the country in question.
Institutions, companies, and other entities operating under these governments have adopted the idea of policy formulation, and as such new types have emerged.
Internal and external stakeholders of a specific organization make this type of policy. It is the type of policy that aims at deciding the goals and activities of the entire organization. Policies of this sort usually anchor on the co-values of the organization and what purpose it serves.
Take, for instance, a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) that advocates for human rights. They can develop a policy that makes sure these are respected starting from within the NGO before being extended to the field.
Such organizations create codes of conduct that are characterized by criticism against; discrimination along racial or tribal lines, the stigma of any kind, and even inter-office romantic relationships sometimes. A breach of these may even cost someone their position or their entire placement in such an organization.
Companies among other organizations are organized into departments that have different functions. These Units and divisions necessitated this type of policy. Functional policies are assigned to specific areas in any kind of setup.
These range from financial, production, marketing, and others. You may then find that separate departments in the same organization have policies that only apply to one but not the other. The reverse can also be true.
However, these policies should never be conflicting. In order to achieve organizational goals, there is a need to harmonize departmental policies.
Even governments also have these functional policies. In fact, public policy is more fragmented than any other type. This is why I regard it as the mother of all policies. Governments throughout history have been known to have Domestic, Foreign, Economic, and financial policies among myriad others.
The last type of policy we will look at for the purposes of this article is the specific policy which is quite self-explanatory and straightforward. Be it in the government or the private sector, this type of policy is formulated to address a particular issue and usually is temporary.
For example, call to mind how Covid-19 has impacted policymaking in your respective country. We have also seen activities of the old day being banned and in some instances referred to as illegal and attracting fines and even jail penalties.
Not only public policy was affected, but private entities are also changing their policies to suit the new business atmosphere. Further, a heavy decrease in movement and physical contact activity has been the order of the day.
A good example of a phenomenon affecting policymaking is that of Covid-19 vaccination. These vaccines also have received a lot of negative criticism. There is such resistance, that governments implemented policies that excluded non-vaccinated citizens from are from certain activities.
Recently in Zimbabwe, churches were not allowing citizens who have not received their full vaccination evidenced by vaccination cards, access to their services.
Many scholars have already begun analyzing the impact the pandemic has had on policy formulation. The point not to miss remains that, more than one specific policy type has been designed to try and mitigate the challenges that came about as a result of this monstrous virus.
There are several other policy types, most of which emerge as a result of others. I believe we have not yet seen them all.
Perhaps it is adequate to narrow down the types of policies there are. Working on this article, I have realized how much trouble scholars go through trying to reinvent theories without new dynamics to the subject matter.
I am really interested in interacting with the matter from a deeper perspective. My aim is to zero in on two types of policy that encompass all the other policy types that keep popping up.
Maybe you, my beloved readers are interested in embarking on this journey with me. Enough of the crust let’s go for the nucleon of the matter!