We have looked and exhausted on the aspect of policy, from the process of its formulation. We even undressed the matter from the top most determinant of human lives, right down to the last member of the household who is generally affected by policy from birth need to learn What Are The 4 Types Of Policy?.
However, questions still find themselves on my desk about the types of policy there are! Well this particular one we are going to try and answer in this article. There are more than seven types of policy but to answer the topical question I choose to narrow down to four major types. Those on which many types are modelled.
Four 4 Types Of Policy?
What Are The 4 Types Of Policy? Four types of policy includes Public Policy, Organizational Policy, Functional Policy and Specific Policy. Policy refers to a course of action proposed by an organization or individual.
Public Policy generally determines the lines along which human beings in a particular country can operate. Legality of activities, voting and even which side of the road you can drive your vehicle is impacted by policy.
It is designed by authorities of the respective country through processes based on the type of government that rules. Public policy is arguably the umbrella of all other policies, most of which are developed from it. This type of policy also determines policies that are formulated in organizations that operate in the country in question.
Institutions, companies and other entities operating under these governments have adopted the idea of policy formulation and as such new types have emerged.
This refers to policy that is made by a specific organization, by its stakeholders and for its internal and external stakeholders. It is the type of policy that aims at deciding the goals and activities of the entire organization. Policies of this sort usually anchor on the co-values of the organization and what purpose it serves.
Take for instance, a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) that advocates for human rights, can develop a policy that makes sure these are respected starting from within the NGO before being extended to the field.
Such organizations create codes of conduct that are characterized with criticism against; discriminations along racial or tribal lines, stigma of any kind and even inter-office romantic relationships sometimes. A breach of these may even cost someone their position or the entire placement in such an organization.
Companies among other organizations, are organized into departments which have different functions. These Units and divisions necessitated this type of policy. Functional policies are assigned to specific areas in any kind of set up.
These range from financial, production, marketing and others. You may then find that separate departments in the same organization have policies that only apply to one but not the other one and the reverse is also true.
However, these policies should never be conflicting. In order to achieve organizational goals, there is need to harmonize departmental policies.
Even governments also have these functional policies. In fact, public policy is more fragmented than any other type, which is why I would regard it as the mother of policy. Governments in History have been known to have Domestic, Foreign, Economic and financial policies among a myriad of others.
The last type of policy we will look at for the purposes of this article is specific policy which is quite self-explanatory and straight forward. Be it in government or private sector, this type of policy is formulated to address a particular issue and usually is temporary.
Call to mind how Covid-19 has impacted policy making in your respective country. We have seen activities of the old day being banned and in some instances referred to as illegal and attracting fines and even jail penalties.
Not only public policy was affected, private entities have also found themselves changing their policies to suit the new business atmosphere. Heavy decrease of movement and physical contact activity has been the order of the day.
A good example of a phenomenon affecting policy making is that of Covid-19 vaccination. These vaccines have received a lot of negative criticism and even resistance such that governments have had to implement policies where non-vaccinated citizens are excluded from certain activities.
Recently in Zimbabwe, churches where not allowing citizens who have not received their full vaccination evidenced by vaccination cards, access to their services.
Many scholars have already begun analyzing the impact the pandemic has had on policy formulation. The point not to miss remains that, more than one specific policy type, have been designed to try and mitigate the challenges that came about as a result of the monster in the form of this virus.
There are several other policy types, most of which emerge as a result of others and I believe we have not yet seen the most.
Perhaps it is adequate to narrow down on the types of policy there are. Working on this article, I have realized how much trouble scholars go through trying to reinvent theories without new dynamics to the subject matter.
I am really interested in interacting with the matter on a deeper perspective. My aim is zero in on two types of policy which encompass all the other policy types that keep popping up.
May be you beloved readers may be interested in embarking on this journey with me. Enough of the crust lets go for the nucleon of the matter!