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Technocracy discussed in this article and the Difference between technocracy and democracy? to borrow Lincoln’s famous words, democracy is seen as government by the people, for the people, and by the people. Technocracy, on the other hand, is seen as the rule by unelected experts and authorities in policy making.
Technocracy is a governance model in which decision-makers are chosen for offices based on their technical expertise and background. It distinguishes itself from traditional democracy in that individuals selected for leadership roles are elected through a process that emphasizes relevant skills and proven achievements, rather than whether or not they fit the interests of the majority of the popular vote.
Individuals in such positions in technocracy are known as “technocrats”. Examples of technocrats are trained economists and central bankers who follow a set of rules applied to empirical data.
How Technocracy Works
Technocracy is a political entity governed by professionals (technocrats) chosen or appointed by a higher authority. Technocrats are said to have been specifically selected for their expertise in government-mandated fields. In practice, technocrats must always be appointed by a superior authority. The political structures and incentives that influence that superior authority always play some role in the choice of technocrats.
Civil servants labeled as technocrats may not possess the political savvy or charisma normally expected of elected politicians. Instead, technocrats may exhibit more practical, data-oriented problem-solving skills in the political realm.
Related Article: Advantages and disadvantages of technocracy
Democracy is a form of government that empowers the people to exercise political control and limits the powers of the head of state. It provides for the separation of powers between state organs and guarantees the protection of natural rights and civil liberties. In reality, democracy comes in many forms. In addition, the two most common forms of democracy, direct democracy, and representative democracy, today there are variants such as participatory, liberal, parliamentary, pluralistic, constitutional, and socialist democracy.
Despite prominent headlines for undemocratic and authoritarian states such as China, Russia, North Korea, and Iran, democracy remains the most widely practiced form of government in the world. For example, in 2018, a total of 96 (57%) of the 167 countries with populations of 500,000
or more were democracies. Statistics show that the proportion of democracies in governments worldwide has been increasing since the mid-1970s. It is now just below its post-World War II peak of 58% in 2016.
Principles of Democracy
Opinions vary, but political scientists agree that most democracies are based on six basic elements.
Electoral System: As the source of all political power based on the principle of popular sovereignty is the people, a well-defined system for conducting free and fair elections is essential.
Public Participation: A democratic state can hardly survive without the active participation of its population. Healthy democracy enables and encourages people to participate in political and civil society processes.
Separation of Power: Based on the suspicion of power concentrated in a single individual (such as a king) or group, the constitutions of most democracies provide for the separation and division of political power into various governing units. doing.
Human Rights: In addition to the liberty rights enumerated in the Constitution, democracy protects the human rights of all citizens. In this context, human rights are rights enjoyed by all human beings, regardless of nationality, sex, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or other considerations.
Rule of Law: The rule of law is the principle that every citizen is responsible for laws that are publicly enacted and fairly enforced by an independent judicial system by human rights.
Types of Democracy
There are different types of democracies and some of them are the following;
A representative democracy (also called an indirect democracy) is a system of government in which all eligible citizens elect officials who pass laws and formulate public policy on their behalf. These elected officials are expected to represent the needs and perspectives of the people in determining the best course of action for the entire country, state, or other jurisdiction.
In a participatory democracy, people vote directly on policies and elected representatives are responsible for enforcing those policies. Participatory democracy relies on citizens to determine the direction of the state and the functioning of its political system. Her two forms of government share similar ideals, but participatory democracy tends to encourage higher and more direct civic
participation than traditional representative democracy.
Liberal democracy is a form of representative democracy that emphasizes the principles of classical liberalism, an ideology that advocates protecting the civil and economic liberties of individuals by limiting the powers of government.
In a parliamentary democracy, the people directly elect representatives to the legislative assembly. Like the U.S. Congress, Congress directly represents the people in making the necessary laws and political decisions for the country. In parliamentary democracies such as the United Kingdom, Canada, and Japan, the head of government is the prime minister, who is first elected to parliament by the people and then elected as prime minister by parliamentary votes. However, the prime minister remains a member of parliament and therefore plays an active role in the legislative process of making and passing laws. Parliamentary democracy is usually characterized by a constitutional monarchy. This is a system of government where the head of state is a queen or king whose powers are limited by the constitution.
Although the exact definition remains debated among political scientists, constitutional democracy is generally defined as a system of government based on popular sovereignty and the rule of law, where the structure, powers, and limits of government are determined by the constitution.
Socialist democracy is broadly defined as a system of government based on a socialist economy, in which most property and means of production are collectively rather than individually owned by governments in the political hierarchy established in the constitution. managed by social democracy involves government regulation of business and industry as a means of promoting economic growth while avoiding income inequality.
Difference Between Technocracy and Democracy
Politicians are elected while technocrats are appointed
This is the key difference between technocracy and democracy. Politicians are chosen by the electorates through a democratic process – election. Technocrats on the other, hand appointed to their respective positions by political leaders. The whole idea of having technocrats stems from the notion that politicians are too dull to think on their own. As a result, smart people should think on their behalf, and those smart people are technocrats.
Politicians do consult with the members once in a while regarding what development they may need in their residences. They do this by visiting chiefs or local leaders and seeking an audience with them where they give a listening ear to what the leaders have to say. Contrary, technocrats have no time to consult anyone. They just act based on what they feel is right – they trust their instincts and expertise.
Both technocracy and democracy are useful and essential in government because they complement each other in such a way that where one fails, another succeeds. They both have flaws in them but can surely thrive together.
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